The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order

The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order In The Second World, Scholar Parag Khanna, Chosen As One Of Esquire S Most Influential People Of The Twenty First Century, Reveals How America S Future Depends On Its Ability To Compete With The European Union And China To Forge Relationships With The Second World, The Pivotal Regions Of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, South America, The Middle East, And East Asia That Are Growing In Influence And Economic StrengthInformed, Witty, And Armed With A Traveler S Intuition For Blending Into Diverse Cultures, Khanna Depicts Second World Societies From The Inside Out, Observing How Globalization Divides Them Into Winners And Losers And Shows How China, Europe, And America Use Their Unique Imperial Gravities To Pull The Second World Countries Into Their Orbits Along The Way, Khanna Explains How Arabism And Islamism Compete For The Arab Soul, Reveals How Iran And Saudi Arabia Play The Superpowers Against One Another, Unmasks Singapore S Inspirational Role In East Asia, And Psychoanalyzes The Second World Leaders Whose Decisions Are Reshaping The Balance Of Power

Parag Khanna is Founder Managing Partner of FutureMap, a data and scenario based strategic advisory firm He is the international bestselling author of six books, has traveled to most of the countries of the world, and holds a PhD from the London School of Economics

❮PDF / Epub❯ ★ The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order ✓ Author Parag Khanna – 502udns.info
  • Paperback
  • 496 pages
  • The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order
  • Parag Khanna
  • English
  • 11 January 2018
  • 9780812979848

10 thoughts on “The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order

  1. says:

    Khanna s premise is that at present the first world is divided into three almost hemispheric correlating power centers the U S., the European Union, and China The countries making up the second world are those caught between the stable and prosperous and those who re poor and unstable, the third world Khanna says those second world countries will determine, through alliances, which of the big 3 power centers will dominate in the future He s heavily influenced by Toynbee s ideas of how the west can identify and challenge geopolitical stresses to help develop adequate responses to what some see as the natural decline of the west Khanna s world is a geopolitical marketplace the U S., E U and China are businesses, and whoever has the most satisfied customers will be the strongest He s careful to point out that the current competition, if unmodified or unduluted, will result in war Underlying it all, of course, is the end of the American empire His message is that history happens, even to America The Conclusion, in which he describes just how steep and rapid is America s decline, is sobering This is an interesting book, cover to cover The geopolitical issues and problems are serious, he says, especially for America Their losses and missteps, particularly, are always to China s and Europe s advantage The arguments are convincing But in the end Khanna becomes a little shrill, his examples noted as indicators seem selective, mentioned only because they support his arguments In writing about crime and prisons, for instance, he calls America a penal colony The careful, even handed analyst of the earlier chapters becomes in the Conclusion, a demagogue on a soapbox.

  2. says:

    This book is going to shape my worldview for a long time, I think It s a great overview of how the current geopolitical powers U.S., the E.U and China exert their influence on second world i.e., partially developed countries, and how those countries can best interact with the big guys to further their own development Let s just say the U.S better get its act together fast if it wants to stay a first world country Khanna is clearly an excellent researcher and theorizer, but he also writes with a playfully poetic voice.

  3. says:

    I ve read his chapters on the Middle East Egypt, Saudi, and the rest of the GCC states I expected far from this book While Khanna s style of writing is really attractive, the amount of information, research, and even analysis was really shallow Nothing in the Middle East chapters than what you read in NYT, TIME, or Newsweek.

  4. says:

    Very good info but not great In the end, it boils down to geopolitical concerns of natural resources vs globalization.The two global impulse are geopolitics and globalization with concomitant access to natural resources, power, and stability He states the 2nd world economies is where the opportunity as well as huge risks lie b c of its unreliable governments He states that the US should have a diplomatic industrial complex The three superpowers in the world are the US with its diplomatic coalition building, the EU with its diplomatic consensus, and China with its consultancy approach to diplomacy 2nd world success lies with aligning itself with one of the three superpowers or to play one off the other.What continues to surprise me is how much access to natural resource energy supply influences geopolitical military considerations What I once considered absurd going to war for oil, does not seem so out there any After reading enough foreign policy books, I now see there is a definite connection between national security prerogatives and access to international natural resources I think he is correct in stating globalization is a force for world peace because countries deeply enmeshed in global supply chain will find it harder to break their interconnected economies just to declare war on its neighbor I also agree with his assessment that before democracy can take root people must be able to afford their basic necessity and they must have secure and stable government for trade to occur Geo politically speaking, China remains the greatest threat to Pax Americana not the EU because the EU is too fragmented to go against long term American interest whereas China is united politically The war of the future will be mainly economic between countries and those who are interconnected via the global supply chain vs failed states which will harbor terrorist groups China competitive advantage is it s population and manufacturing output, American competitive advantage is its military might and innovative centers, and European competitive advantage is its marketplace that while per capita wage is less than the US, they have double the US population In the long term, Khanna wants Congress to focus on debt reduction, infrastructure upgrade, education, and making innovation and entrepreneurial spirit continue to be synonymous with America EU and East European powers EU power will really come from dictating its regulations in order to skew its marketplace towards a environmentally friendly world According to Khanna since EU marketplace is the largest in the world their economic regulations will effect multi national business if they want to partake in its huge marketplace I wonder if part of the EU s strategy has to do with getting away from Russia energy dependence In the US, California will press for a environmentally friendly US Russia petrocracy is dominated by energy sector of oil and natural gas reserve Apparently, Gazprom and KGB complex is a dangerous complex that reinforces each other at the expense of liberal democratic institutions Ukraine proves that democracy without a strong leader who ushers it in cannot happen before conditions on the ground are met In Ukraine, democratic movement led to the curse of 3rd world democratic governments everywhere, crony capitalism and oligarchy But, at least, there is a conscious movement by the younger generation toward EU not authoritarian Russia Once Ukraine falls solidly into the EU way of democracy perhaps there will be a domino effect into Russia so that liberal transparent democracy will shine in Russia too.Balkans grass roots movements with Serbia and Bosnia are pushing for a EU style democracy and away from ethnic loyalties that can push it to Iraqi style sectarian violence Bosnia and Serbia is the equivalent to Iraq and Afghanistan of Europe.Caucus Azerbaijan Georgia are countries important to Europe only as a pipeline of the Caspian Sea that is an alternate to Russian oil gas dominance So, it behooves the EU to stabilize this region toward a EU style democracy But, because it is far from EU proper the only use of these Caucus countries is energy, the push to liberalize will not be there if endangers energy supply Energy interests and democratization is the only hope for Georgia Turkey is the most powerful, secular, democratic Muslim state The EU is hesitant to include Turkey into its fold because it is still a poorer per capita than the EU as a whole although it is part of NATO The question is can the EU with its current precarious economic plight to include a poorer partner in Turkey with a large population The US wants Turkey to be a part of the EU as a showcase to Muslim countries that the West and Muslims can work together for the common good The geopolitical upside for including Turkey in the EU versus the global jihadi movement is that it can use globalization from within to change the Arab world into a moderate version of itself Having an EU membership is an incentive, Turkey is being pushed to have of a Western style transparency as well as giving ethnic minority rights which ultimately is good for the rights of the individual Turkey seems to have a good balance between military, secular, and Muslim elites Unlike other Muslim countries, Turkey has forces that are pro development, democratization, and modern Islam of the Alevi and Sufi variant Even the AKP is a Sunni Islamist party that has a pro European development and justice agenda.Turkey s biggest geopolitical strategy that seems to be working is playing the US, EU, Russia, Iran, and Israel off each other thus making them a regional powerhouse There biggest use to the EU is they are the final stop of the oil and gas pipeline of Russia, Iran, and, Caucus republics into Europe Central Asia The sphere of influence of Central Asian regions which include the Stans and AfPak lies with China and Russia which are competing for regional influence Apparently with the power vacuum left by the Soviet Union, China has created the Shanghai Cooperation Organization a la NATO which is a multi organization that seeks stability within the region If it were not for the failed state status that most of these countries have that breed Islamic extremism that seek the destruction of the West, I would say we should leave these states SCO to decide in its regional stability China has the most influence in these authoritarian areas because it is pouring in money for infrastructure in exchange for oil reserves and it is staying away from democratization efforts This area is important for China and the EU because of its enormous oil and gas reserves as well as flow of illegal weapons, drugs, and Islamic militants The issue is its inhospitable terrain and mixture of clashing ethnicities.Russia Far East and Siberia although high in natural reserves has very low population whereas China is encroaching in Russian land because of its high population with nowhere to go This can potentially be regional war because of population encroachment by Chinese vs Russian land integrity Chinese province of Tibet and XinJiang are wanted by the Chinese because of its natural resource as well as the key gate way for trade of export of goods in exchange for inflow of energy from the Stans China seeks to integrate their territories into an internal whole by force if necessary as seen in Tibet and the Uygurs population of XinJiang province Chinese also seek to repopulate these areas with Han Chinese similar to what White people did to the unpopulated West Kazhkstan is apparently the most successful of the stan due to the dictator s good stewardship and liberalization and diversification of the economy From among the stan s, the private sector accounts for of its economy and workforce As oppose to Kazhkstan, Uzbekistan was the most promising because of its infrastructure, natural resources, and urban center has a stagnant economy because of Karimov pushed extreme nationalism and against globalization The nationalism also began an extreme crackdown of all dissident which leads to the growth of Islamic extremism as the alternative to his regime Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan are similar in its failure to take advantage of their pipeline gifts to cure the ills of their society The worst of the problems is the AfPak region in which weak government institutions has led to either totalitarian military rule or Islamic fundamentalism as the government of choice China influences Pakistan than America because of their development projects that China gives Pakistan Apparently, the military owns the most businesses in Pakistan Although America gives Pakistan military aid, we also demand Islamic crackdown within Pakistan thus causing a de facto civil war in Pakistan The alternative for America is worse because the alternative would be an Islamic regime within nuclear Pakistan or continuing terrorist training camps in the FATA regions South America and Mexico South America is plagued by political instability that gives rise to failed states that allow drug trafficking to the US South America is important to the US for its trade, counter drug trafficking efforts, and natural resources Globalization has allowed South America to leave the US Western hegemony in favor of EU and China Again for South America especially Venezuela, China is the ideal trading partner because they keep out of internal politics Khanna implies in the tension between globalization and democracy, free trade always wins South America benefits from the US insistence on free trade with Mexico, Brazil, and Chile reaping the greatest rewards.In his chapter on Mexico, Khanna states US attempts to stem the tide of illegal immigration should include substantial development aid such as education grants so Mexican can compete with China in skilled manufacturing labor as well as micro finance loans Globalization inequalities combined with China predominance has led to massive Mexican unemployment which leads to a spike in illegal immigration into the US Although American businesses benefit from the migrant workforce that allows lower pay for working hours, illegal immigration is stressing American social services such as education and health care Mexico is also the main drug trafficking route into the US in exchange for illegal guns that flow into border towns which are populated with organized crime Venezuela s Hugo Chavez shows the failure in the policy of democratization in areas with a large poor and uneducated population Constant high energy prices has allowed Chavez to consolidate his power and squeeze the professional middle class that has allowed a massive brain drain in the area while further impoverishing the impoverished Chavez seeks to unseat the US with China as its main export trading partner Thus underscoring the huge problem of democracy diplomacy in place of our massive energy requirements.Columbia s strong institution of the presidency, judiciary, and central bank has allowed foreign investment capital to continuously flow towards it Uribe s efforts in war on drugs combined with neo liberalism policies has brought stability to Colombia But the lack of development funds in diversifying farmers crops away from poppy seeds and coca plants is simply shifting the drug growers to the periphery not getting rid of them.Brazil is South America s main economic engine and harbinger of free trade in the region because of its huge natural resource reserve combined with its massive economy combined with its unified Brazilian ethnic diversity which spans Africans with Lebanese, with Italians, with Japanese that are the largest outside of their respective countries 80% of South America s top 500 companies come from Brazil But like other globalized states there is rampant inequalities in Brazil with the bottom half unable to meet its basic needs thus creating unprecedented crime Brazil is the poster child of the 2nd world.Whereas Argentina used to be the go to South American the current distinction now goes to Chile It seems that American backed dictatorships are a good stepping stone to market economic prosperity from Pinochet s Chile, to Suharto s Indonesia, to Attaturk s Turkey, to Ben Ali s Tunisia Other factors that contributes to Chile preeminence is significant German immigrant s work ethic to its present day investments in education and technology to its free trade agreements to China, US, EU, Japan, and South Korea It also has low corruption in its government versus openness of its trade.MIDDLE EAST Arabic language and Islamization are the two regional forces shaping the Arab world today The internet is a social activity for Arabs because Internet cafes is the preferred location where they surf The concept of a United Umma is of a concept than an actual reality Arab regimes are concerned with stability of their respective regimes than development or democracy, thus they will just develop just enough to be relevant but not too much to destabilize their regimes.North Africa The reason that that the Spring Revolution started in North Africa is due to its proximity to the Europe and thus large trade that Europe represents US AFRICOM was created to combat terrorist cells that sought to destabilize energy producing West African countries American backed strong man Ben Ali produced for Tunisia women s rights, widespread literacy home ownership rights, and social equality that it later led to him being ousted from power Morocco is Europe experimentation on how to gradually liberalize an Arab country Although still an absolute monarchy, the current King is liberalizing his country allowing political parties and dissident voices to form NGO s thus allowing it to progress Algeria s oil profits is its curse which has allowed the typical Arab dichotomy of military rule or Islamic fundamentalism to thrive Libya s Gaddafi regime clamped down on entrepreneurship but was ousted because Libyan s citizenship want freedom Egypt has water supply issues Egyptian want a stable Palestine because they are straining the social service sector of Egypt similar to what illegal immigrants are doing to the US Being the largest Arab state and its cultural, economic, and political hub underscores the importance of it being a stable democracy like Turkey in moderating Islamic militancy Khanna states Egypt is the Arab tipping point for both Islamism and democracy The reliance of tourism as a major part of their economy as well as true democracy will moderate Islamic extremism in Egypt If one combines America s democratic promotion with EU and Chinese development funds pouring into Egypt, Egypt should be well on its way to a productive modern society a la Turkey Mumbarak being ousted really comes from Egyptian high unemployment and young population Good thing economic diversification was on its way before the revolution broke out North Africa worst case scenario is that Islamist will take over and create a totalitarian rule But if this happens, they will still have to focus in ruling a country rather than focusing externally toward global jihad Iran s restless population shows that people do not like totalitarian regimes be if fascism, communism, or Islamism Israeli Palestinian issue Palestinian explosive population growth has made a Palestinian state as necessity for Israel if they want to keep their state Jewish Jordan Jordan is a country of stability amid the region s wars thus profiting despite its dearth of national resources except for fresh water because the Arab middle class from Palestine to Syria, to Iraq, to Syria all go to Jordan away from areas where they are prosecuted Like Morocco, the Jordanian monarchy is development oriented with excellent educational opportunities and inspiring a nascent IT sector Foreign investment is pouring in because of its political stability and reverse brain drain is occuring Syria Baathist socialism combined with Asad s dictatorial regime has made Syria stagnant.Lebanon democracy masks sectarian division Lebanon is not united over anything because of its sectarian division thus its weak state of affairs has allowed Hezbollah to be a government within a government and significant meddling of both Syria and Israel in domestic affairs.Iraq can devolve into Lebanese type sectarian divisions that will weaken the Iraqi state so that ignificant interference between Syria Saudi Arabia for Sunni loyalty and Iran domestic interference for Shia loyalty may destabilize the region Meanwhile the Kurds will become and autonomous and may agitate for a greater Kurdistan Clinton s strategy of nation building in the Balkans should have been emulated by Bush but Bush s neoconservatives did not believe in nation building so now we have a weak Iraq that may crack at any time Iran Iran seeks strategic freedom from foreign interference Although Iranian youth look to America as a model in freedom, they do not like American help in pushing for democracy thus despite neoconservative criticism of Obama distancing himself from Iranian democratic movement, I believe it was the right move Ayatollah s revolution successes has to do with discontent with Shah and SAVAK rather than the general population wanting an Islamic government Ahmadinejad was elected because of his populist appeal and anti corruption agenda of a corrupt bureaucracy Iran will remain a regional power because of its vast oil and gas reserves that demand hungry EU and China continuously buys, a strong army funded by its oil profits and weaponry upgrade from trade with China and Russia supplies nuclear know how With a stagnant economy other than oil and increasing young unemployed population, the Islamic revolution is an anathema to the youth population of the country and looks to America as a friendly model Gulf States produce 40% of global energy output thus ensuring it to be a top geopolitical player into the foreseeable future Because 70% of Asian energy needs come from the Gulf States, a drop in demand from US will not hurt it at all Conversely because of the burgeoning global middle class oil and gas demand will continue to be high thus affecting the price Today, America provides the Gulf States security with Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait as main basis The Gulf State seek US protection as barrier to Saudi Wahhabism and Iranian Shia Islamism Saudi Arabia Although the west loves Saudi s oil and gas reserves, we are scared by the royal family derives its legitimacy from funding Wahhabism which in turn funds Islamic militants across the world While Wahhabism is practiced by many Saudi s, the royal and business elite live amoral lives of loose women and material excess Because of the 911 oil spike in price, the Saudi s have begun a redevelopment of much of its land thus allowing increase education and diversification of the economy UAE Abu Dhabi and Dubai are the twin HK and Las Vegas of the Arab world where high finance mixes with the go to sin city character in the Arab world UAE proves where there is ultra strict excess of religious interpretation, there will be excess in materialism and sexual underground as a counter force present Dubai workforce are basically modern day immigrant slaves.

  5. says:

    Never in my life have I read a book that was so consistently wrong Every bit of analysis made and every prediction are just so bafflingly false that I was almost impressed I give it two stars instead of one only because reading it was a really enjoyable experience Every chapter brought an assertion that was even crazier than the last, and I got a good laugh out of every one.Khanna uses the word diaspora about fifty times throughout the book like he had just learned the word before starting Also, once every four or five pages we get a quote from some totally real person not named Parag Khanna that the author definitely talked to Who needs citations All the quotes are basically the same, which is another sort of punchline scattered through the book I agree with Parag Khanna completely, and I live in the place he s talking about, so you should too mused a Sunni former diplomat surgeon selling kabobs outside of the Bosnian embassy in Moscow Also, every country is really at least four countries, and every region on Earth is like the Balkans in some way Another favorite trend of mine is his painfully bad metaphors which he always has close at hand Just like the cevapi the region is known for, the former Yugoslavia is a lot like a bunch of sausages rolling around together and getting grease all over my fingers The real factual and logical errors are two many to list, so I ll pick a few of his heavy hitters He claims that the EU worked an economic miracle on Ireland, Spain, and Portugal just like it will soon work a miracle on Eastern Europe Just look at those regions today and you ll see how crazy this is Slams Hugo Chavez for being a part of OPEC and thus controlling the amount of oil being extracted, as well as for a few bald faced lies Criticizes China for building hospitals, putting up telephone lines, reducing school costs, and creating jobs in Xinjiang These are his exact words And just a million absurdities I wouldn t recommend reading at all, but if you re informed and pick this book up without knowing it s quality, you ll have a good laugh.

  6. says:

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  7. says:

    I had really high hopes for this book I thought it would provide a good introduction and overview on developments in such diverse regions as Central Asia, the Magrheb and the Mashreq Plus, it trumpeted its status as an NYT Idea of the Year on the back cover I ve since come to the conclusion that the high praise for Khanna s book came from people who don t actually know anything about the regions covered in The Second World And don t mind the fact that Khanna s book is really a collection of punchy albeit unsubstantiated soundbites It s not that I expect a book that covers half the world in 30 chapters to provide a nuanced and in depth view of sociopolitical developments in each country But I do think that Khanna s woeful lack of attention to accuracy and substantiation is shocking I don t know very much about the places covered in Khanna s book that s why I read it after all But I do know a bit about Asia And the last 5 chapters on developments in Asia horrified me There were factual inaccuracies Khanna claims that Singaporeans divorce at the world s highest rate, which I believe is untrue and plenty of hyperbole Like the EU, ASEAN experienced its Bosnia like moments after the Cold War the Asian financial crisis, Indonesian forest fire haze, the East Timor intervention and the SARS outbreak to compare these developments to Bosnia like moments is frankely ludicrous Essentially, the section on Asia made me question whether I could trust anything that had been written in the previous chapters Had the section on Asia come first, I believe I would have stopped reading the book entirely something that I ve almost never done.A dangerous book to read, for those who think this will give them an insight into the Second World Khanna comes across as someone hoping to be treated as an intellectual, but is really a hack looking for a soundbite.

  8. says:

    This scope of this book was extremely ambitious Basically an overview of all of the pivotal countries and regions of the world The author is well traveled and has been to all of these places and talked with local people there, giving him valuable perspective The theme of the book was less ambitious, which was probably why I liked it much better than Huntington or Fukuyama The world is too complicated to fit into a single geopolitical metaphor Khanna s theme is that we are moving into a multipolar world with the US, Europe, China and to some degree Russia, Brazil, and China as great powers, vying to exert influence upon the rest of the world The second world refers not to the traditional Cold War definition, but rather to those regions and countries that might tip the balance of future geopolitical struggles These countries are not mired in the depths of poverty that third world Africa finds itself in South America, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, all constitute potential rising spheres of power and the alliances that they form might tip the balance in favor of any of the great powers The book was well written and interesting, but it grew a bit boring eventually The analysis is a bit shallow as one might expect no one can be an expert on every country in the world And, as is often the case in these books, the language is a bit superficial Still, an interesting and enjoyable book.

  9. says:

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  10. says:

    I thought for a few weeks last year that Parag Khanna would be the next big thing I couldn t help but like him, he d written a brilliant NYT magazine article and he looked so dapper But a brilliant article can easily get stretched into a bland and plodding book After the Russian Devolution and Ukranian chapters which were informed and enjoyable it was all progressively downhill and muddy It wasn t that anything Khanna wrote was objectionable, but very little in the book convinced me to trust that the author s global predictions Everything I agreed with was already obvious If Khanna commands authority, I ve decided it s less Francis Fukuyama and Andre Leon Talley Like the Vogue editor, Khanna doesn t waste time with caveats or conditionals, he just pronounces whether gushing about the UAE a model for governance or how the Shanghai Corporation is revolutionary He could just as well say clearly high heeled booties have become the new workday staple I would take Brent Scowcroft, Fareed Zakaria, Martin Wolf, Andrew Bacevich or even Tom Friedman and Amy Chua any day for a survey of the American empire in a multipolar world Instead of Second World , I suggest the Jan 08 NYT article and a good dose of The Onion s Our Dumb World.

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